GLOSSARY

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A.D.: "Anno Domini." Years since the birth of Christ.


ARTIFACT:  Objects from which we can learn about the past


BABYLON: Mesopotamian city-state. For many years it was the most powerful city in the world. Home of the Ishtar Gate, the Hanging Gardens, and a large ziggurat. 


B.C.: "Before Christ." Years before the birth of Christ


B.C.E.: Years before the birth of Christ


C.E.: "Common Era." Years since the birth of Christ. Non-religious term.


CIRCA: "Approximately." We use this word when we are estimating when an event took place. 


CODE OF HAMMURABI:  Set of laws written by Hammurabi


 CUNEIFORM: Form of writing used in Mesopotamia


 DOMESTICATION: Using and adapting animals and plants for human use. Domestication started as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.


EUPHRATES RIVER:  River that supported life in Mesopotamia


FERTILE CRESCENT:  Land on which Mesopotamia was located


HAMMURABI: King of Babylon. United the Mesopotamian city-states into one large empire. Wrote the Code of Hammurabi. 


HISTORY:  The study and analysis of events of the past


HUNTER-GATHERERS: Paleolithic people who hunted animals and gathered edible plants   


INDUS RIVER: River that supported life in Ancient India


INDUS RIVER VALLEY: The land where people first settled in Ancient India 


JUDAISM:  A monotheistic religion founded by Abraham


MESOPOTAMIA: "The Land Between Two Rivers." One of the River Valley Civilizations. Located on the Fertile Crescent near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 


MONOTHEISM:  Belief in one  god


NEOLITHIC ERA:  Prehistoric period.  People had developed agriculture (farming)


NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION:  When people stopped being hunter-gatherers and started farming


NOMADS: People who migrate from place to place in search of food 


OTZI: Neolithic man whose corpse was found encased in ice. We have learned much about Neolithic life from him. 


PALEOLITHIC ERA: Prehistoric period in which people were nomadic hunter-gatherers


PREHISTORY:  Period before the invention of writing.  It is divided into the Paleolithic Era and the Neolithic Era


PRIMARY SOURCE:  An account written by someone who witnessed the events


RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: Early human settlements, including Mesopotamia, India, China, Egypt 


SCRIBE:  Person whose job was to keep records and write things down


SECONDARY SOURCE:  An account written about an event by someone who was not an eyewitness to the event


 SURPLUS: When you have more of something than you actually need. A surplus of food allowed some early people to stop being farmers and specialize in other trades. 


TIGRIS RIVER:  River that supported life in Mesopotamia