GLOSSARY


A.D.: "Anno Domini." Years since the birth of Christ.


ARTIFACT:  Objects from which we can learn about the past


AKENHATEN:  Pharaoh who converted Egypt from polytheism to monotheism


ASOKA:  Ruler in India who had been very violent but converted to Buddhism and became peaceful


BABYLON: Mesopotamian city-state. For many years it was the most powerful city in the world. Home of the Ishtar Gate, the Hanging Gardens, and a large ziggurat. 


B.C.: "Before Christ." Years before the birth of Christ


B.C.E.: Years before the birth of Christ


BRAHMA: A Hindu god. The creator.


BUDDHA:  Siddhartha Gautama.  Founder of Buddhism


BUDDHISM:  Religion founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama


CARNARVON, LORD:  Wealthy British man who funded the discovery of King Tut's tomb


CARTER, HOWARD:  Archaeologist who discovered King Tut's tomb in 1922


C.E.: "Common Era." Years since the birth of Christ. Non-religious term.


CIRCA: "Approximately." We use this word when we are estimating when an event took place. 


CODE OF HAMMURABI:  Set of laws written by Hammurabi


 COMPASS: Magnetic device that enabled sailors to know in which direction they were traveling. Invented by the Ancient Chinese.


CUNEIFORM: Form of writing used in Mesopotamia


DEAD SEA SCROLLS:  Ancient Hebrew writings discovered in 1947


DHARMA:  The rules a Hindu must follow


DJOSER:  Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt who was buried in the Step Pyramid


DOMESTICATION: Using and adapting animals and plants for human use. Domestication started as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.


EUPHRATES RIVER:  River that supported life in Mesopotamia


FERTILE CRESCENT:  Land on which Mesopotamia was located


FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS:  Main beliefs of Buddhism


GRAND CANAL: Trade route that runs from the north to the south of China.


GUNPOWDER: Explosive powder that was used for religious and military purposes in China.


GREAT WALL OF CHINA:  Defensive barrier in the north of China.  Built by Qin Shi Huangdi to protect against the Mongols.


HAMMURABI: King of Babylon. United the Mesopotamian city-states into one large empire. Wrote the Code of Hammurabi. 


HANGING GARDENS:  Gardens built by King Nebuchadnezzar on the roof of his palace.  One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.


HATSHEPSUT:  Pharaoh of Egypt.  Disguised the fact that she was female


HINDUISM:  A polytheistic religion founded in India


HISTORY:  The study and analysis of events of the past


HUNTER-GATHERERS: Paleolithic people who hunted animals and gathered edible plants   


INDUS RIVER: River that supported life in Ancient India


INDUS RIVER VALLEY: The land where people first settled in Ancient India 


IRRIGATION:  Moving water from where its source to where it is needed.  This is usually done through canals


ISHTAR GATE:  Main entrance to the city of Babylon


JEW:  Person who practices Judaism


JUDAISM:  A monotheistic religion founded by Abraham


KARMA:  According to Hindu belief, affects how a living thing will be reincarnated


KHAFRE: Pharaoh whose face was the face of the Great Sphinx


KHUFU: Pharaoh who was buried in the Great Pyramid of Giza 


MENES:  The first pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.  United Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt


MESOPOTAMIA: "The Land Between Two Rivers." One of the River Valley Civilizations. Located on the Fertile Crescent near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 


MONOTHEISM:  Belief in one  god


NEFERTITI:  Wife of Akenhaten


NEOLITHIC ERA:  Prehistoric period.  People had developed agriculture (farming)


NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION:  When people stopped being hunter-gatherers and started farming


NILE RIVER: River that supported life in Egypt


NILE RIVER VALLEY: Land in which the Ancient Egyptian civilization was located 


NIRVANA:  A state of peace.  The goal for all Buddhists


NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH:  The way Buddhists believe they should live their lives


NOMADS: People who migrate from place to place in search of food 


OLD KINGDOM: A very early period of Ancient Egyptian history. Pyramids were built during this time. 


OTZI: Neolithic man whose corpse was found encased in ice. We have learned much about Neolithic life from him. 


PALEOLITHIC ERA: Prehistoric period in which people were nomadic hunter-gatherers


POLYTHEISM:  Belief in more than one god


PREHISTORY:  Period before the invention of writing.  It is divided into the Paleolithic Era and the Neolithic Era


PRIMARY SOURCE:  An account written by someone who witnessed the events


QIN SHI HUANGDI:  First emperor of China.  Built the Great Wall of China and the Terracotta Army


REINCARNATION:  Belief that living things have souls that, after death, are reborn in new bodies


RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: Early human settlements, including Mesopotamia, India, China, Egypt 


RUDDER: Small device that enables sailors to steer their boat. Invented by the Ancient Chinese.


SCRIBE:  Person whose job was to keep records and write things down


SECONDARY SOURCE:  An account written about an event by someone who was not an eyewitness to the event


SHANG: The people who first settled in the Yellow River Valley 


SHIVA: A Hindu god. The destroyer. Also spelled SIVA.


SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA:  Founder of Buddhism.  a.k.a. Buddha


SILK ROAD:  Trade route that connected China with Europe

 
SMALLPOX INOCULATION: Exposing a person to a weakened form of smallpox so they will develop immunity to the disease 


SPHINX:  Egyptian statue.  Head of a man, body of a lion.


STEP PYRAMID:  The first pyramid built in Ancient Egypt


SURPLUS: When you have more of something than you actually need. A surplus of food allowed some early people to stop being farmers and specialize in other trades. 


TERRACOTTA ARMY:  Statues that "guarded" Qin Shi Huangdi's tomb.  


TIGRIS RIVER:  River that supported life in Mesopotamia


TUTANKHAMUN ("KING TUT"):  Very young pharaoh whose tomb was discovered by Howard Carter in 1922.


VEDIC RELIGION:  See Hinduism


VISHNU: A Hindu god. The preserver 


YELLOW RIVER:  River that supported life in Ancient China


YELLOW RIVER VALLEY:  Land on which Ancient China was first settled


ZIGGURAT:  Mesopotamian religious temple