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A.D.: "Anno Domini." Years since the birth of Christ.
ARTIFACT: Objects from which we can learn about the past
BABYLON: Mesopotamian city-state. For many years it was the most powerful city in the world. Home of the Ishtar Gate, the Hanging Gardens, and a large ziggurat.
B.C.: "Before Christ." Years before the birth of Christ
B.C.E.: Years before the birth of Christ
C.E.: "Common Era." Years since the birth of Christ. Non-religious term.
CIRCA: "Approximately." We use this word when we are estimating when an event took place.
CODE OF HAMMURABI: Set of laws written by Hammurabi
CUNEIFORM: Form of writing used in Mesopotamia
DOMESTICATION: Using and adapting animals and plants for human use. Domestication started as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.
EUPHRATES RIVER: River that supported life in Mesopotamia
FERTILE CRESCENT: Land on which Mesopotamia was located
HAMMURABI: King of Babylon. United the Mesopotamian city-states into one large empire. Wrote the Code of Hammurabi.
HISTORY: The study and analysis of events of the past
HUNTER-GATHERERS: Paleolithic people who hunted animals and gathered edible plants
INDUS RIVER: River that supported life in Ancient India
INDUS RIVER VALLEY: The land where people first settled in Ancient India
JUDAISM: A monotheistic religion founded by Abraham
MESOPOTAMIA: "The Land Between Two Rivers." One of the River Valley Civilizations. Located on the Fertile Crescent near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
MONOTHEISM: Belief in one god
NEOLITHIC ERA: Prehistoric period. People had developed agriculture (farming)
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION: When people stopped being hunter-gatherers and started farming
NOMADS: People who migrate from place to place in search of food
OTZI: Neolithic man whose corpse was found encased in ice. We have learned much about Neolithic life from him.
PALEOLITHIC ERA: Prehistoric period in which people were nomadic hunter-gatherers
PREHISTORY: Period before the invention of writing. It is divided into the Paleolithic Era and the Neolithic Era
PRIMARY SOURCE: An account written by someone who witnessed the events
RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: Early human settlements, including Mesopotamia, India, China, Egypt
SCRIBE: Person whose job was to keep records and write things down
SECONDARY SOURCE: An account written about an event by someone who was not an eyewitness to the event
SURPLUS: When you have more of something than you actually need. A surplus of food allowed some early people to stop being farmers and specialize in other trades.
TIGRIS RIVER: River that supported life in Mesopotamia