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A.D.: "Anno Domini." Years since the birth of Christ.

ARTIFACT:  Objects from which we can learn about the past

BABYLON: Mesopotamian city-state. For many years it was the most powerful city in the world. Home of the Ishtar Gate, the Hanging Gardens, and a large ziggurat. 

B.C.: "Before Christ." Years before the birth of Christ

B.C.E.: Years before the birth of Christ

C.E.: "Common Era." Years since the birth of Christ. Non-religious term.

CIRCA: "Approximately." We use this word when we are estimating when an event took place. 

CODE OF HAMMURABI:  Set of laws written by Hammurabi

 CUNEIFORM: Form of writing used in Mesopotamia

 DOMESTICATION: Using and adapting animals and plants for human use. Domestication started as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.

EUPHRATES RIVER:  River that supported life in Mesopotamia

FERTILE CRESCENT:  Land on which Mesopotamia was located

HAMMURABI: King of Babylon. United the Mesopotamian city-states into one large empire. Wrote the Code of Hammurabi. 

HISTORY:  The study and analysis of events of the past

HUNTER-GATHERERS: Paleolithic people who hunted animals and gathered edible plants   

INDUS RIVER: River that supported life in Ancient India

INDUS RIVER VALLEY: The land where people first settled in Ancient India 

JUDAISM:  A monotheistic religion founded by Abraham

MESOPOTAMIA: "The Land Between Two Rivers." One of the River Valley Civilizations. Located on the Fertile Crescent near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 

MONOTHEISM:  Belief in one  god

NEOLITHIC ERA:  Prehistoric period.  People had developed agriculture (farming)

NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION:  When people stopped being hunter-gatherers and started farming

NOMADS: People who migrate from place to place in search of food 

OTZI: Neolithic man whose corpse was found encased in ice. We have learned much about Neolithic life from him. 

PALEOLITHIC ERA: Prehistoric period in which people were nomadic hunter-gatherers

PREHISTORY:  Period before the invention of writing.  It is divided into the Paleolithic Era and the Neolithic Era

PRIMARY SOURCE:  An account written by someone who witnessed the events

RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: Early human settlements, including Mesopotamia, India, China, Egypt 

SCRIBE:  Person whose job was to keep records and write things down

SECONDARY SOURCE:  An account written about an event by someone who was not an eyewitness to the event

 SURPLUS: When you have more of something than you actually need. A surplus of food allowed some early people to stop being farmers and specialize in other trades. 

TIGRIS RIVER:  River that supported life in Mesopotamia